This page lists the color belt forms that Vail Taekwon-Do uses.
Known as the Chang-Hon Patterns.
The JTF (our association) uses the 1972 First Edition Book "Taekwon-Do" by Gen. Choi Hong Hi
Each form has some information on what the form means or what the form was named after. Students will be quized on the facts listed below the form name for testing questions.
Clicking on the form's name will open a new page that contain:
- Official text of the form
- A Verbal Walkthrough. Can be used to talk a student through the form. The verbal walkthrough is the same as what the instructor says when conducting the class to do the form by the number.
- A Video of the form being performed. The current videos are not 100% the way we do the forms. They are very close though.
Saju-Makgi - 15 Movements
Four Directional Block
Chon-Ji – 19 Movements
Means literally "the Heaven the Earth". It is, in the Orient, interpreted as the creation of the world or the beginning of human history, therefore, it is the initial pattern played by the beginner. This pattern consists of two similar parts; one to represent the Heaven and the other the Earth. Is usually the first form learned in many associations.
Dan-Gun - 21 Movements
8th-Yellow-Recommended to 7th-Yellow-Decided
The form is named after the legendary founder of Korea in 2333 B.C. The legend of Dan-Gun is based on the Korean Trinity, consisting of Whan-In (the Creator), Whan-Uing (the son of the Creator) & Dan-Gun (the human form of the Creator). Whan-Ung was given permission to create a mortal kingdom on Earth. In 2333 B.C., with 3,000 spirits Whan-Ung descended to the Ta-Bak Mountain. He assembled the spirits under the Pak-Tal tree (Sandalwood) & proclaimed himself the King of the Universe. Whan-Ung reined over his kingdom with the aid of “Wind General,” “Rain Governor,” & “Cloud Teacher.” Needing to become human to rein in a world of men, Whan-Ung made a deal with a tiger & a bear. He gave them each 20 pieces of garlic & a stick of artemisia (sagebrush) & told them to hide from sunlight for 21 days. The impatient tiger could not wait & came out early. With great faith, the patient bear stayed the duration & was transformed into a perfect woman. Whan-Ung breathed on the woman making her pregnant. Their son was born on Mount Myo-Hyang under the Pak-Tal tree and was named Tan-Gun Wang-Gum, Lord of the Pak-Tal tree. Years later, men of the Ku-I (9 wild tribes) found Tan-Gun under the tree and made him king. From their first home, Mt Paektu (Ever White mountain) Tan-Gun led his people south to Pyongyang, the first Korean capital. He was noted for introducing marriage, subject-king relationship, art of cooking, house building, agriculture, hair binding & tree cutting. Also, he made the first altar on Kang-Wha Island, known as Dan-Gun’s Altar. Dan-Gun reigned for 1,211 years with his wife Pi So-Ap & sons by his side. He fell from power when the uncle of the Shang King of China, Ki-Ja escaped the overthrow of the Shang Dynasty and escaped to Korea with 5,000 subjects. Tan-Gun fled from Ki-Ja’s forces to the town of Mun-Wha, where he resumed his into his spirit form and left the mortal world. The Chinese ruled Korea for 929 years and brought with them Chinese culture in the form of literature, medicine & art. Dan-Gun day celebrated on October 3rd, commemorates the founding of Korea.
Do-San – 24 Movements
6th-Green-Recommended to 5th-Green-Decided
The form is named for the pseudonym of the patriot & educator Ahn Chang Ho (1876-1938). The 24 movements represent his entire life, which he devoted to furthering the education of Korea and its independence movement. From 1904-1945, Japan controlled Korea. During this occupation, Japan tried to eradicate Korean culture, literature, historical records & education. Due to the oppression, many Koreans fled. One of those refugees was Ahn Chang-Ho. While in the United States, he established the Sinminhoe (New People’s Republic), a secret independence group supported by a Protestant organization to support youth groups & schools. He went on to create the Taesong (Large Achievement) School to educate Korean youth on national spirit. In 1911 the Japanese passed the Education Act, which forced all Korean schools to close. This was an act to keep the Korean people illiterate to ensure a class of slaves. By the end of World War I, Ahn Chang-Ho established the Kungminhoe (People’s Society) in Honolulu in attempts to persuade President Woodrow Wilson to speak on their behalf. In 1919, Ahn Chang-Ho, Kim Ku & Rhe Syngman (later the 1st President of R.O.K.) established a provincial government in Shanghai. These men wrote a democratic Constitution, establishing freedom of press, speech, religion, assembly, called for an elected president, legislature, creation of an independent judiciary & abolishment of the nobility class. On March 1st, 1919, the provisional government declared its independence from Japan and called for a general resistance. Several thousands were killed and not until the end of World War II, did Korea gain its independence.
Won-Hyo - 28 Movements
5th-Green-Recommended to 4th-Blue-Decided
Is named after the noted monk who introduced Buddhism to the Silla Dynasty in 686 A.D. Born Sol-Sedang (617-686 A.D.) was given the pen names Sedak & Won-Hyo, both meaning, “dawn.” Gentlemen were given several nicknames that demonstrated intellectual prowess and artistic talent. Also, it was customary to give nicknames to monks by their masters. Since Buddhism was not accepted in Silla, Won-Hyo studied Buddhism in China. He created his own sect of Buddhism known as Chongto-Gyo, translating to “Pure Land.” Both Koguryo & Paekche accepted Buddhism as a national religion but Silla’s general population had yet to embrace it. Only the Silla royal family had adopted the religion and with the help of King Pop-Hung, Won-Hyo helped to make Buddhism the national religion. Won-Hyo was a noted author and through his writings helped to unify the five sects in Silla to become a unified group. He helped to bring about a unique culture in Korea through his knowledge of Buddhist philosophy. He had a profound impact on the quality of life in Silla and on the influence of Buddhism in Korea, China and Japan.
Yul-Guk - 38 Movements
4th-Blue-Recommended to 3rd-Blue-Decided
Is the pen name of the philosopher & scholar Yi I (1536-1584 A.D.). He was nicknamed the “Confucius of Korea.” It has 38 movements to symbolize his birthplace on the 38th parallel and the pattern of movements ( + ) for the character for “scholar.” Yul-Gok, meaning Chestnut Valley was the pseudonym given to Yi I. Born in Kang-Nung in the Kwangwon-Do Province. Yi I’s was very close to his mother, who was a revered woman in Korean society. Upon her death, Yi I went to a Zen Buddhist monastery to mediate. There he was educated on Buddhist philosophy. Upon leaving, he devoted his life to the study of Confucianism. He became well known for being an expert of the school of Chu-Hsi. Yul-Gok proposed that the “chi” controlled the universe and that “li” was a supporting agent. Yul-Gok’s School stressed the importance of education, experience & intellectual activities. The other school of taught was led by Yi –Hwang (Yi Toi-Gye). Toi-Gye believed that the “li” controlled and that the “”chi” stressed the importance of moral character. This difference was the cornerstone in a political stalemate. Kim Hyo-Won, who controlled the eastern part of Seoul followed the teachings of Toi-Gye, while the western section, led by Sim Ui-Gyom followed Yul-Gok. Yul-Gok was deeply embedded in government affairs. He held the position of Minister of Defense, calling for a 100,000 Army Reserve Corp. He established the Hyang-Yak (village laws based in Confucian ethics) to govern local governments. Yul-Gok created the Taedong (Great Equity) System to aid finances by levying land rather than on households. Because of the political struggle, Yul-Gok never got to see his theories and systems develop. Nonetheless, he was still revered as an extraordinary philosopher for his lifelong dedication to Confucianism and theory of government.
Choong-Gun - 32 Movements
3rd-Blue-Recommended to 2nd-Red-Decided
Choong-Gun is named after the patriot Ahn Chung-Gun, who assassinated the first Japanese Governor-General of Korea and who was martyred in prison in 1910. It has 32 movements to commemorate his untimely death at the age of 32. In the late 1800s to the early 1900s, Korea was in the middle of a power struggle between Japan, Russia & China. In 1904 Japan prevailed and laid claim to Korea. Japan’s first action was to establish a provisional government with Hiro Bumi Ito as the first resident general. His first act was to force the weak Korean government to sign the Protectorate Treaty on November 19, 1905. This act allowed Ito to assign commissioners to govern provinces, force foreign powers to leave the peninsula, siege land, force Emperor Ko-Jong to abdicate, sell Korean territory to foreign governments, control over prisons & courts, disband the local police & army. Ahn Chung-Gun was born in the town of Hae-Ju, in the Hwang-Hae Province in 1879. He was a renowned educator and was credited for starting the Sam-Heung (3 Successes) School. Though raised as an educator, he became a guerrilla leader to fight the Japanese occupation. Based in Manchuria, Ahn Chung-Gun saw an opportunity to assassinate Ito. Knowing he had only one chance and that he would never escape alive, Ahn shot Ito as he was stepping off the train on October 26, 1909 at Harbin train station. Ahn was captured by the Japanese and imprisoned at Port Arthur. Ahn spent five months in prison enduring barbaric torture. Despite harsh treatment, his spirit never broke. He found enough energy to write “The Best Rivers & Mountains,” a calligraphy expressing why he felt his country was the most beautiful on Earth. On March 26, 1910, Ahn was executed at Lui-Shung prison.
Toi-Gye - 37 Movements
2nd-Red-Recommended to 1st-Red-Decided
Toi-Gye is the pen name of the scholar Yi Hwang, a noted authority on Neo-Confucianism. It has 37 movements to signify his birthplace on the 37th parallel. The pattern of movements forms the character ( + ) for scholar. Yi-Hwang was born in 1501 in the Kyongsang-Do province. As a youth, showing exceptional intelligence, he was given the pen name Yi Toi-Gye, meaning returning stream. At 34 years of age, he passed the state exam for civil service and was appointed to several high governmental positions. He turned down the offers and felt his calling to academic studies, concentrating in philosophy and neo-Confucianism. Following Chu Hsi, Toi-Gye believed that the “li” (reason or abstract form) controlled the universe by perfecting oneself through building of moral character, learning & reflection & that the “chi” (matter or vital force) was a supporting agent. Toi-Gye wrote several works, including, “musil” (diligence & realism, endeavor to be realistic or try to be true), “shirhak” (practice learning) & “chasonhauk.” Toi-Gye yielded great influence over government officers. He was able to close many Buddhist temples (Buddhism was seen as a social evil to neo-Confucian leaders), create a private school/shrine (Tosan Sowon) & become exempt from taxes (making his following wealthy). In 1570, Toi-Gye passed away, not knowing that his teachings would be the cornerstone for a political war. One of his followers, held a high government position. He exercised his right to veto the succession of a rival, which started the political war. The political stalemate allowed the Japanese and the Manchu to easily invade and conquer Korea.
Hwa-Rang - 29 Movements
1st-Red-Recommended to Black Belt Recommended
Is named after the youth movement, which originated in the Silla Dynasty about 1350 years ago & later became the driving force behind the unification of the 3 kingdoms (Koguryo, Paekche & Silla) of Korea. Considered the forerunners of the Japanese Samurai, the Hwa-Rang helped to perpetuate the Korean people for 1,500 years. Established in 57 B.C., Silla was the smallest in area & population compared to the other two kingdoms of Korea. The 24th king of Silla, Chin-Hung established the order of Hwa-Rang meaning the flower of knighthood to train these elite few to help lead and defend its kingdom. The Hwa-Rang were generals of the army of Silla. These men were the sons of nobility. The Hwa-Rang had several groups consisting of thousands of men led by a Kuk-Son, meaning senior leader. These men studied for ten years the five cardinal principles of human relations, the three scholarships, the six ways of service and the Code of Hwa-Rang (Sesok Ogye), which was considered more ancient and refined compared to the Bushido. The Hwa-Rang were taught martial arts and the Buddhist faith. These knights transformed the national art of foot fighting known as Soo-Bak by intensifying and adding hand techniques and renamed it Tae-Kyon. The rank of Hwa-Rang meant the man commanded an army of 5,000 men called Hwa-Rang Do. Some famous Hwa-Rang warriors were Kwi-San and Chu-Hang. These two men died in battle to save their fallen general. One noted Kuk-Son was General Kim Yoo-Sin, who was regarded as the driving force in the unification of Korea. He will forever be remembered for defeating in battle and killing, the great Paekche general, Kae-Bak. The Hwa-Rang fell out of favor under the Yi Dynasty and thus a decline in the following. But through Admiral Yi Sun-Sin and some Buddhist monks, the legacy lived on.
Choong-Moo - 30 Movements
1st-Red-Recommended to Black Belt Recommended
Choong-Moo was the name given to the great Admiral Yi Sun-Sin of the Yi Dynasty who invented the first armored battleship – the forerunner of the modern submarine. It ends in a left-handed movement to symbolize his death before he was able to demonstrate completely his loyalty to the King. Born in 1545, Yi Sun-Sin was renowned for his mastery of naval warfare. He was credited for creating the Kobukson (turtle boat), an iron plated galley ship. The ship was impervious to all current weaponry, built for speed, capable of outrunning or capturing anything afloat, armed with 40 cannons, the most of its time & led with a large iron ram in the shape of an open mouth turtle’s head used for ramming & firing arrows & darts. It was the most highly developed warship of its time. He was also noted for creating fishnet or inverted V group, an advanced attack formation, the 2 salvo fire technique, a continuous barrage of fire to make the enemy was being attacked by a large force., smoke generator, in which sulphur & saltpeter were burned to emit clouds of smoke & the flamethrower, a cannon that fired an arrow filled with an incendiary charge. Admiral Yi rose to fame when the Shogun of Japan planned to conquer China via Korea. Outnumbered and with primitive weapons, the Korean army could not match the more numerous and well-armed Japanese army. Despite the disadvantage on land, the Korean navy heavily outnumbered 1,000 to 1 was able to have control of the seas. On one occasion, a Japanese spy pretending to be an informant to the Koreans gave false information about a surprise Japanese naval attack. Knowing the location to be a false one, Admiral Yi refused. The royal court arrested, tortured & demoted Yi to the rank of common foot soldier. During this time in Korean history, most men would not have accepted the demotion., they would have committed suicide or attempt to seek revenge. Yi accepted his rank & went about his new duty. The new admiral, Won Kyun set sailed with the entire Korean fleet of 80 boats to meet the Japanese. Without the leadership of Admiral Yi, the Korean fleet was destroyed. Fearing for his country’s security, King Son-Jo reinstated Yi to his former position. Admiral Yi gathered what was left of his fleet, 12 boats & went out to attack the Japanese. Despite being heavily outnumbered by the Japanese, Admiral Yi decimated the Japanese fleet. In 1598, while in battle with the Japanese, a stray bullet struck Admiral Yi killing him. Due to the lack of success, the Japanese invasion ceased with the death of the Shogun, Hideyoshi. Admiral Yi’s greatest quality was his devotion & service to his king. In a time when most Koreans sided with 1 of 2 political parties, Admiral Yi chose neither & was only loyal to his king & country. After his death, he was given the title of Chung-Mu, meaning loyalty-chivalry. The award of Distinguished Military Service Medal was named after him. He was further honored with a statue (the tallest in the Orient), a shrine, named Chungnyol-Sa, meaning faithful to king & country & a museum in the city of Chung-Mu, which has a replica Kobukson.